Selasa, 25 Januari 2011

The Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks
[ha-Mossad le-Modiin ule-Tafkidim Meyuhadim]

Mossad [Hebrew for “institute”] has responsibility for human intelligence collection, covert action, and counterterrorism. Its focus is on Arab nations and organizations throughout the world. Mossad also is responsible for the clandestine movement of Jewish refugees out of Syria, Iran, and Ethiopia. Mossad agents are active in the former communist countries, in the West, and at the UN.
Mossad is headquartered in Tel Aviv. The staff of Mossad was estimated during the late 1980s to number between 1,500 to 2,000 personnel, with more recent estimates placing the staff at an estimated 1,200 personnel. The identity of the director of Mossad was traditionally a state secret, or at least not widely publicized, until in March 1996 the Government announced the appointment of Major General Danny Yatom as the replacement for Mossad Director Shabtai Shavit, who resigned in early 1996. Danny Yatom (1996-1998) was succeeded by Ephraim Halevy (1998-2002). In September 2002, Meir Dagan was designated the new Mossad director.
Formerly known as the Central Institute for Coordination and the Central Institute for Intelligence and Security, Mossad was formed on 01 April 1951. Mossad was established by then Prime Minister David Ben Gurion, who gave as Mossad's primary directive: "For our state which since its creation has been under siege by its enemies. Intelligence constitutes the first line of defence...we must learn well how to recognise what is going on around us."
Mossad has a total of eight departments, though some details of the internal organization of the agency remain obscure.
  • Collections Department is the largest, with responsibility for espionage operations, with offices abroad under both diplomatic and unofficial cover. The department consists of a number of desks which are responsible for specific geographical regions, directing case officers based at "stations" around the world, and the agents they control. Beginning in 2000, the Mossad undertook an advertising campaign to promote recruitment of collection officers. See a June 2001 recruiting poster here. A flash version of the recruiting ad, published September 2002, may be viewed here.
  • Political Action and Liaison Department conducts political activities and liaison with friendly foreign intelligence services and with nations with which Israel does not have normal diplomatic relations. In larger stations, such as Paris, Mossad customarily had under embassy cover two regional controllers: one to serve the Collections Department and the other the Political Action and Liaison Department.
  • Special Operations Division, also known as Metsada, conducts highly sensitive assassination, sabotage, paramilitary, and psychological warfare projects.
  • LAP (Lohamah Psichologit) Department is responsible for psychological warfare, propaganda and deception operations.
  • Research Department is responsible for intelligence production, including daily situation reports, weekly summaries and detailed monthly reports. The Department is organized into 15 geographically specialized sections or "desks", including the USA, Canada and Western Europe, Latin America, Former Soviet Union, China, Africa, the Maghreb (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia), Libya, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Iran. A "nuclear" desk is focused on special weapons related issues.
  • Technology Department is responsible for development of advanced technologies for support of Mossad operations. In April 2001, the Mossad published a "help wanted" ad in the Israeli press seeking electronics engineers and computer scientists for the Mossad technology unit.

Sources and Resources

Irian jaya (papua)

rian Jaya currently known as West Papua is one of the province of Indonesia located in the most eastern, the largest area of Indonesia. It is an area of the world so remote, rugged and diverse but its people can convey such a sense of unity and friendship. You will find them very warm and accommodating. There are over 250 different tribes of Irian Jaya, each with their own language, lifestyle and culture. The traditional of the indigenous in Jayawijaya and Paniai regencies will remind you of the stone age besides those in the coastal areas with their unique and nicest attractions. 
Papua" is the official Indonesian and internationally recognized name for the province. During the Dutch colonial era the region was known as part of "Dutch New Guinea" or "Netherlands New Guinea". Since its annexation in 1969, it became known as "West Irian" or "Irian Barat" until 1973, and thereafter renamed "Irian Jaya" (roughly translated, "Glorious Irian") by the Suharto administration. This was the official name until "Papua" was adopted in 2002. Today, natives of this province prefer to call themselves Papuans rather than Irianese. This may be due to etymology (variously identified as a real etymology or a folk etymology) of the name Irian which stems from the acronym Ikut Republik Indonesia, Anti Nederland (join/follow the Republic of Indonesia, rejecting The Netherlands)
The name "West Papua" was adopted in 1961 by the New Guinea Council until the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority (UNTEA) transferred administration to the Republic of Indonesia in 1963. "West Papua" has since been used among Papuan separatists and usually refers to the whole of the Indonesian portion of New Guinea. The other Indonesian province that shares New Guinea, West Irian Jaya, has been officially renamed as "West Papua
Indonesia structures regions by regencies and subdistricts within those. Though names and areas of control of these regional structures can vary over time in accord with changing political and other requirements, in 2005 Papua province consisted of 19 regencies (kabupaten).
The regencies ("kabupaten") are: Asmat; Biak-Numfor; Boven Digoel; Jayapura; Jayawijaya; Keerom; Mappi; Merauke; Mimika; Nabire; Paniai; Pegunungan Bintang; Puncak Jaya; Sarmi; Supiori; Tolikara; Waropen; Yahukimo and Yapen Waropen. In addition to these, the city of Jayapura also has the status of a regency.
Jayapura, founded on 7 March 1910 as Hollandia, had by 1962 developed into a city with modern civil, educational, and medical services. Since Indonesian administration these services have been replaced by Indonesian equivalents such as the TNI (the army) replacing the Papua Battalion. The name of the city has been changed to Kotabaru, then to Sukarnopura and finally to its current official name. Among ethnic Papuans, it is also known as Port Numbai, the former name before the arrival of immigrants.
Jayapura is the largest city, boasting a small but active tourism industry, it is built on a slope overlooking the bay. Cenderawasih University (UNCEN) campus at Abepura houses the University Museum. Both Tanjung Ria beach, near the market at Hamadi — site of the 22 April 1944 Allied invasion during World War II — and the site of General Douglas MacArthur's World War II headquarters at Ifar Gunung have monuments commemorating the events
The population of Papua province and the neighboring West Papua province, both of which are still under a united administration, totalled 2,646,489 in 2005. Since the early 1990s Papua has had the highest population growth rate of all Indonesian provinces at over 3% annually. This is partly a result of high birth rates, but also from immigration from other regions in Indonesia.
According to the 2000 census, 78% of the Papuans identified themselves as Christian with 54% being Protestant and 24% being Roman Catholic. 21% of the population was Muslim and less than 1% were Buddhist or Hindu. There is also substantial practice of animism by Papuans, which is not recognized by the Indonesian government in line with the policy of Pancasila.
A vital tropical rainforest with the tallest tropical trees and vast biodiversity, Papua's known forest fauna includes marsupials (including possums, wallabies, tree-kangaroos, cuscuses), other mammals (including the endangered Long-beaked Echidna), many bird species (including birds of paradise, cassowaries, parrots, cockatoos), the world's longest lizards (Papua monitor) and the world's largest butterflies.
The island has an estimated 16,000 species of plant, 124 genera of which are endemic.
The extensive waterways and wetlands of Papua are also home to salt and freshwater crocodile, tree monitors, flying foxes, osprey, bats and other animals; while the equatorial glacier fields remain largely unexplored.
In February 2006, a team of scientists exploring the Foja Mountains, Sarmi, discovered numerous new species of birds, butterflies, amphibians, and plants, including a species of rhododendron which may have the largest bloom of the genus.
Ecological threats include logging-induced deforestation, forest conversion for plantation agriculture (especially oil palm), smallholder agricultural conversion, the introduction and potential spread of non-native alien species such as the Crab-eating Macaque which preys on and competes with indigenous species, the illegal species trade, and water pollution from oil and mining operations
Papua's ancient rain forests have recently come under an even greater threat of deforestation after the Chinese government has placed an order of 1 billion US dollar or 800,000 cubic meters of the threatened merbau (intsia spp) rainforest timbers, to be used in constructions for the 2008 Summer Olympics.
In remote forested valleys, several thousand small-holder farmers are growing Arabica coffee in the shade of Kaliandara, Erytrhina and Abizia trees. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides are not available in these valleys. Since there are no roads, the coffee is being flown out and then exported from the port of Jayapura.
The following are some of the most well-known tribes of Papua : Amungme, Asmat, Bauzi, Dani, Kamoro, Kombai, Korowai, Mee, Sentani, Yali, Yei

Minggu, 23 Januari 2011

Suku Dani

Peradapan Manusia Suku Dani Yang Mendiami Wilayah Lembah Baliem
“Sebuah Kajian Penelusuran Sejarah Peradapan Nenek Moyang Suku Dani Yang Mendiami Wilayah Lembah Baliem Wamena”
Pulau Papua Merupakan Pulau kedua terbesar di Dunia setelah P.Greenland yang terbentuk pada zaman Yura (180 Juta Tahun Yang lalu). Sedangkan Manusia telah hidup di Dunia \sejak zaman kuarter pada kala Pleistosen 2,5-3 Juta Tahun Yang Lalu (Manusia Purba) dan Holosen(0,1 Juta Tahun Yang Lalu/Manusia Modern). Namun Apakah Suku Dani yang mendiami wilayah lembah baliem ini telah ada sejak zaman ini? Tentunya hal ini tidak dapat dibuktikan tidak pernah ditemukannya fosil-fosil manusia purba di P.Papua.
Menurut para ahli sejarah awalnya pulau-pulau di Indonesia, Kepulauan pasifik hingga Australia hingga Papua merupakan pulau-pulau kosong yang tidak berpenghuni. Gelombang-gelombang penghuni pertama pulau-pulau ini berasal dari Dataran China dan Benua Afrika yang datang antara 30.000 sampai 40.000 Tahun yang lalu. Sedangkan Manusia yang menghuni pulau Papua baru ditemukan pada abad ke 19.
Bagaimana dengan Suku Dani yang mendiami daerah Lembah Baliem?
Peradapan Manusia Papua, Khususnya Suku Dani yang mendiami daerah lembah baliem merupakan peradapan Suku yang bisa dikatakan masih sangat baru.
Suku Dani yang mendiami daerah Lembah Baliem merupakan salah satu Suku Terbesar yang mendiami Wilayah Pegunungan Tengah Papua Selain Suku Dani Wilayah Pegunungan Tengah Papua didiami oleh suku, Ekari, Moni, Damal, Amugme dan beberapa sub suku lainnya.
Suku Dani yang mendiami wilayah lembah baliem dan sekitarnya diperkirakan merupakan suku yang berasal dari wilayah Timur Lembah Baliem atau di kenal dengan nama daerah yali (pada saat ini masuk dalam kabupaten Yalimo dan Kabupaten Yahokimo). Sehingga berdasarkan cerita rakyat yang sering dibicakan oleh orang tua2 bahwa nenek moyang suku dani berasal dari orang Yali.
Mitos menceritakan bahwa orang pertama/ manusia pertama suku Dani bernama Pumpa (Pria) dan Nali nali(Wanita) yang masuk ke Lembah Baliem dari arah timur melalui sebuah Goa. Ada beberapa sumber yang mengatakan Goa pertama tempat keluarnya manusia pertama ini berasal dari Goa Kali Huam (Daerah Siepkosy), ada pula yang mengatakan dari Goa di Daerah Pugima dan sebagian mengatakan bahwa keluarnya Manusia pertama suku dani ini berasal dari dari Pintu masuk angin di daerah Kurima.
Kurangnya penelitian agak menyulitkan diambilnya suatu keputusan asal usul suku Dani, keberadaan pulau papua sendiri baru ditemukan pada tahun 1511 oleh bangsa portugis dalam perjalananya mencari rempah-rempah. Sedangkan suku Dani sendiri baru ditemukan pada tahun 1954 oleh Lourentz pada saat melakukan ekspedisi ke G.Trikora.
Sampai dengan saat ini diperkirakan Suku Dani yang mendiami wilayah lembah baliem merupakan Generasi ke 5 Suku Dani, bila ditarik dari cerita-cerita peradapan Nenek Moyang Suku Dani.
Dengan Perkembangan Teknologi yang sangat pesat, dimana peradapan Suku Dani yang kala itu masih berada pada Zaman Batu dihadapkan pada peradapan Kehidupan modern, langsung melewati beberapa tahapan peradapan tentunya menjadi sebuah ancaman serius bagi Suku Dani dalam peradapan Suku yang semakin melupakan Budayanya ini. Wah…wah…wah….(Created By : Vincent Kosay’99)

SALI Kisah Seorang Wanita Suku Dani

ReviewReviewReviewReviewSALI Kisah Seorang Wanita Suku DaniApr 17, '08 12:26 AM
for everyone
Genre: Nonfiction
Author:Dewi Linggasari
Novel Etnografi Karya Dewi Linggasari ini bercerita tentang kepedihan hidup wanita suku Dani di Papua. Garis hidup yang bernama adat telah meminggirkan segala hak akan kenyamanan hidup dan menjalani segala pilihan dengan bebas. Keindahan lembah Baliem yang digambarkan dengan hijaunya hutan perawan yang selalu berselimut kabut putih tipis serta honai dan silimo yang bergerumbul bak cendawan di musim hujan tak mampu menutup luka hati akibat penindasan hidup atas nama adat kepada kaum perempuannya.

Setting waktu dalam novel ini adalah pada masa orde baru, sampai dengan tumbangnya rezim, dimana sangat terlihat bagaimana lebarnya jurang perbedaan antara pusat dan daerah sehingga pemilik asli segala kekayaan lokal terpinggirkan oleh datangnya makhluk bernama peradaban yang bersembunyi di balik kata pembangunan.

Terlahir menjadi wanita adalah berarti penderitaan yang tak kunjung henti sebab sedari kecil harus membantu ibu untuk bekerja di ladang, mengasuh bayi, memberi makan babi dan menyiapkan makanan untuk seluruh keluarga serta menunggu waktu untuk di’beli’ dengan 20 ekor babi untuk dipekerjakan sebagai ’istri’. Dan laki-laki tidak mempunyai tugas apapun selain berburu dan berperang, dan ketika peprangan antar suku sudah jarang terjadi, maka wanitalah yang akan menjadi pelampiasan akan perasaan kedigdayaan laki-laki yang tak pernah tersalurkan di medan laga.

Kematian seorang Bapak di medan perang adalah berarti satu kesakitan lagi bagi anak perempuan suku Dani, sebab ia harus merelakan seruas jarinya untuk dipotong oleh tua tua adat dengan menggunakan kapak batu yang itu brarti kesakitan yang teramat sangat baik secara fisik maupun psikis.

Tersebutlah Liwa tokoh sentral dalam novel ini, ia adalah sosok wanita suku Dani yang menjalani segala bentuk penderitaan itu sedari anak2. Kematian ibu kandungnya adalah awal pengembaraan fikirannya dalam meraba2 banyak hal ganjil yang menimpanya sampai kelak dia menutup mata. Sedari kecil ia mengalami semua diskriminasi atas nama adat tersebut yang secara nalar tidak bisa ia terima tetapi juga tidak bisa ia tolak. Kemalangan yang bertubi-tubi menimpanya diceritakan secara detil dan laksana sehingga sanggup menyayat kalbu pembacanya.

Seluruh cerita dibingkai dari kaca mata dokter Gayatri, seorang perempuan muda dari Kota Jogja yang memutuskan mengambil PTT di daerah itu setelah rencana ke pelaminan bersama lelaki pujaan hati kandas oleh pengkhianatan sahabatnya sendiri. Pengabdian dokter muda ini sangat berkesan dan dipenuhi dengan banyak hal yang kelak akan menambah kematangan pribadinya.
Cinta kasihnya tertumpah kepada Kelila Sari, salah satu anak kembar yang dilahirkan oleh Liwa, dimana menurut adat suku Dani, anak kembar yang terlahir sebagai adik adalah anak setan yang harus dipisahkan dengan cara dihanyutkan di sungai.

SALI adalah pakaian adat wanita suku Dani yang dipakai dengan cara dililitkan di pinggang. Dan Gayatri menemukan Sali terakhir yang dipakai oleh Liwa, tersangkut di bebatuan di pinggir sungai Fugima. Itu berarti Liwa sudah tidak mempu lagi menanggung beban hidupnya dan menyerahkan nyawanya ke dasar sungai dengan cara memberati tubuhnya dengan batu besar sehingga jasadnya tidak akan pernah muncul kembali ke muka bumi . Suatu cara bunuh diri yang sangat aneh dan sudah turun temurun diyakini oleh wanita suku Dani sebagai jalan terakhir yang dipilih.

Sungguh sebuah tragedi hidup anak manusia yang sangat menyayat hati dan merobek perasaan.



Rumah Honai terbuat dari kayu dengan atap berbentuk kerucut yang terbuat dari jerami atau ilalang. Honai sengaja dibangun sempit atau kecil dan tidak berjendela yang bertujuan untuk menahan hawa dingin pegunungan Papua. Honai biasanya dibangun setinggi 2,5 meter dan pada bagian tengah rumah disiapkan tempat untuk membuat api unggun untuk menghangatkan diri. Rumah Honai terbagi dalam tiga tipe, yaitu untuk kaum laki-laki (disebut Honai), wanita (disebut Ebei), dan kandang babi (disebut Wamai).
Rumah Honai biasa ditinggali oleh 5 hingga 10 orang. Rumah Honai dalam satu bangunan digunakan untuk tempat beristirahat (tidur), bangunan lainnya untuk tempat makan bersama, dan bangunan ketiga untuk kandang ternak.[1] Rumah Honai pada umumnya terbagi menjadi dua tingkat. Lantai dasar dan lantai satu dihubungkan dengan tangga dari bambu. Para pria tidur pada lantai dasar secara melingkar, sementara para wanita tidur di lantai satu.[2]

Selasa, 18 Januari 2011

Baliem Valley

The Baliem Valley, also spelled Balim Valley and sometimes known as the Grand Valley, of the highlands of Western New Guinea, is occupied by the Dani people. The main town in the valley is Wamena. The valley is about 80 km in length by 20 km in width and lies at an altitude of about 1,600-1,700 m, with a population of 100,000.
As far as the outside world was concerned, the discovery of the Baliem Valley and the unexpected presence of its large agricultural population was made by Richard Archbold’s third zoological expedition to New Guinea in 1938. On 21 June an aerial reconnaissance flight southwards from Hollandia (now Jayapura) found what the expedition called the ‘Grand Valley’. Since then the valley has gradually been opened up to a limited amount of tourism.
The following is copied from the back cover of Peter Matthiessen’s book Under the Mountain Wall:
“In the Baliem Valley in Central New Guinea live the Kurelu, a Stone Age tribe that survived into the twentieth century. Peter Matthiessen visited the Kurelu with the Harvard-Peabody Expedition in 1961 and wrote Under the Mountain Wall as an account not of the expedition, but of the great warrior Weaklekek, the swineherd Tukum, U-mue and his family, and the boy Weake, killed in a surprise raid. Matthiessen observes these people in their timeless rhythm of work and play and war, of gardening and wood gathering, feasts and funerals, pig stealing and ambush. Drawing on his great skills as naturalist and novelist, Matthiessen offers a remarkable firsthand view of a lost culture in all its simplicity and violence — on the brink of incalculable change.”